Prostatitis (lat. prostatitis) is an acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate, which is diagnosed in 35-40% of men aged 25-55. The older the patient, the greater the risk of developing prostatitis.
When inflamed, the prostate increases in size and begins to compress the urethra. This process causes the lumen of the urethra to narrow, due to which the man begins to feel a frequent need to urinate, and he also has a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder. In the initial stage, the symptoms of prostatitis can be mild. However, over time, prostatitis becomes the cause of sexual disorders. In addition, the pathology can lead to a number of complications:
- prostate abscess;
Prostatitis or prostate adenoma?
These two diseases are often confused or mistaken for the same thing. Meanwhile, they have different natures and flow patterns.
Age of the patient
over 45 years
The nature of the disease
present in acute form
appears in stage 2-3 of the disease
appears in an acute form
Weakening of potency
observed in both cases
Prostatitis requires primarily drug treatment, while prostate adenoma is a benign tumor that can be removed by surgery. At the same time, prostate adenoma can cause prostatitis, which is why any inflammatory process in the pelvic organs requires timely examination and treatment.
Causes of prostatitis
Prostatitis can be caused by:
- Staphylococcus aureus;
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa;
- sexually transmitted infections;
- chronic infectious diseases (tonsillitis, sinusitis, etc. );
- other opportunistic pathogens.
Prostatitis occurs as a result of:
- sedentary lifestyle;
- sedentary work;
- long periods of abstinence;
- excessive sexual activity;
- termination of sexual intercourse.
The mentioned factors contribute to the disruption of capillary blood flow and the emergence of stagnant processes in the prostate tissue.
Prostatitis begins to develop more intensively when favorable factors appear, which include:
- chronic constipation;
- unbalanced diet;
- urological diseases;
- frequent stresses;
- intoxication of the body due to smoking or drinking alcohol;
- injuries of the perineum.
Types and symptoms of prostatitis
According to the form of appearance, prostatitis in men is divided into:
Acute prostatitis. One of the first signs of the course of the disease is a pronounced pain syndrome, which occurs against the background of a rapidly developing inflammatory process. Prostate swelling occurs, caused by exposure to pathogenic microflora. The condition requires immediate medical attention. In turn, acute prostatitis can have the following forms:
- catarrhal (frequent painful urination, pain in the sacrum and perineum, difficulty in defecation);
- follicular (pain intensifies and begins to radiate to the anus, when you go to the toilet, urine flows in a thin stream, body temperature rises to 37. 5 ºС);
- parenchyma (body temperature rises to 38-40 ºС, general intoxication of the body is observed, sharp throbbing pain is observed in the groin area, acute retention of urine occurs).
Chronic prostatitis is practically asymptomatic or has mild symptoms. In men, from time to time the temperature rises to 37-37. 5 ºС, there is a slight pain in the perineum, which intensifies during urination or defecation. In addition, you can experience:
- weakening of erection;
- accelerated ejaculation;
- reducing the intensity of sexual feelings.
In some cases, chronic prostatitis becomes the result of an acute process, when the patient notices a so-called false improvement and refuses to see a urologist. As a rule, the result of self-treatment at home is numerous complications: prostate abscess or adenoma, bladder inflammation, loss of fertility, etc.
Depending on the cause, prostatitis can be:
Diagnosis of prostatitis
Palpation allows you to determine the size, shape and structure of organ tissue.
Laboratory research. It makes it possible to diagnose prostatitis and other prostate diseases in the early stages or in chronic cases without pronounced symptoms.
- general analysis of blood and urine;
- a biochemical blood test is performed to clarify the picture of the disease and determine the involvement of other internal organs and systems in the inflammatory process;
- PSA blood test;
- urine culture with antibiotic sensitivity test.
- swab for urogenital infections to detect sexually transmitted diseases.
Ultrasound is used to identify structural changes in prostate tissue and detect neoplasms (cysts, tumors).
TRUS is performed through the rectum and allows you to get the most complete information about the state of the gland and bladder.
MRI allows you to get detailed layer-by-layer images of the prostate and surrounding tissues in three different projections.
Treatment of prostatitis
Treatment methods depend on the identified cause of prostatitis, so the patient must undergo a comprehensive examination.
Treatment of acute prostatitis
Antibacterial therapy. Before prescribing antibiotics, the doctor will refer the patient to tests to identify the cause of the infection. After that, drugs are selected that will help suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and eliminate the inflammatory process.
Symptomatic treatment. In addition, the urologist can prescribe antipyretics, painkillers, diuretics, laxatives, vitamins, immunomodulators and other drugs.
Operation. It is performed in case of complications. For example, if an abscess develops, the doctor may perform a transurethral or transrectal opening of the abscess; in case of acute urinary retention, a cystoma may be required.
Treatment of chronic prostatitis
Antibacterial therapy. The course of treatment is 14-28 days and must be completed, even if the signs of prostatitis have disappeared after a week. Antibiotics are used to eliminate infection and suppress inflammatory processes in the body.
Symptomatic treatment. Depending on the indications, the urologist may prescribe painkillers, antispasmodics, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, vascular and other drugs to the patient.
Manual or hardware massage. One of the most effective methods of treating prostatitis in men. Prostate massage helps to remove stagnant secretions, improve blood and lymph flow, and restore metabolism in the affected organ.
Physiotherapy treatment. Depending on the indications, the urologist may prescribe electrical stimulation, laser or magnetic therapy. The procedures help improve blood circulation, have an anti-inflammatory effect and help restore reproductive function.
Prevention of prostatitis
Prostatitis prevention is much easier than later treatment. To do this, just follow the recommendations below:
Annual review. It is necessary to visit a urologist every year, even if there are no complaints about your health.
Sport activities. Regular physical activity helps improve metabolic processes throughout the body, including the prostate.
Rejection of promiscuous sexual relations. Sex is very important for men's health, but frequent changes of sexual partners can cause bacterial prostatitis and related complications.
A balanced diet. You must eat at least 3 times a day. The diet should contain low-fat fish and meat, cereals, fermented milk products, fresh vegetables and fruits. It is recommended to limit consumption or completely avoid carbonated drinks, fatty and smoked foods, pastries and spices.
Rejection of bad habits. Alcohol consumption and smoking reduce immunity and additionally burden the body, creating favorable conditions for the development of many diseases.
Questions and answers
Question: How to distinguish acute prostatitis from chronic?
Answer: We should start from the fact that in acute form the disease most often occurs in people under 30-35 years of age. Chronic prostatitis is considered ageless. The disease in its acute form usually manifests quickly with the following symptoms:
- sudden increase in body temperature (up to 40 degrees);
- a severe headache occurs;
- the fever starts.
Acute prostatitis is also characterized by constant pain in the groin, back and perineum.
In its chronic form, prostatitis, on the contrary, may not show symptoms for a long time. Over time, a person develops a fever and periodic pain appears in the anus, scrotum, back and perineum.
Urination is difficult, purulent discharge from the anus and urethra begins. Chronic prostatitis also leads to erectile dysfunction. Ejaculation begins to be painful, and sexual intercourse is not pleasant.
Question: What happens if prostatitis is not treated?
Answer: If a person is not treated for diagnosed prostatitis, complications and accompanying pathologies may develop
- Vesiculitis. This disease is characterized by inflammatory processes in the seminal vesicles. As a result, pus enters the ejaculate and the quality of sperm decreases. Vesiculitis often leads to a complete loss of reproductive functions.
- Colliculitis. A disease in which inflammatory processes affect the seminal tubercle. As a result, during sex, a man experiences severe pain, which leads to the interruption of orgasm. Without therapy, a person develops impotence of a psychological nature.
- An abscess. It occurs in the prostate and leads to intoxication of the body. Its bursting can lead to increased symptoms, and in some cases to death.
- Infertility. It occurs against the background of deterioration of sperm quality and inflammatory processes in the testicles, spermatic cord and vesicles.
- Against the background of prostatitis, immunity often deteriorates. About a third of all cases of the disease without therapy end in the development of oncology. Prostatitis must be treated in a specialized andrological clinic.
Question: Where should I go for prostatitis treatment?
Answer: The diagnosis is usually made by a urologist based on a study of symptoms. To confirm prostatitis, various studies are usually prescribed:
- general blood and urine tests;
- smear for sexually transmitted diseases;
- secret research;
In some cases, biopsy and spermogram are also prescribed.